Human activities are causing a sustained increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The resulting harmful effects on Earth’s climate require decarbonizing the economy and, given the slow pace and inherent limitations of decarbonization of some industries such as aviation, also the active removal and safe sequestration of CO2 away from the atmosphere (i.e., carbon dioxide removal or CDR; NASEM, 2022). Limiting global warming to 1.5°C—a target that may already have been exceeded—would require CDR on the order of 100–1000 Gt CO2 over the twenty-first century (IPCC, 2018).

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