Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like free radicals are generated as physiological products of metabolic reactions. Normally, low ROS concentrations are required in signal transduction before their removal. However, in cancer cells, ROS concentration is excessive, which leads to oxidative stress, due to which several ROS downstream signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis become activated. Hence, oxidative stress is a crucial factor in anti-cancer research for cancer progression and therapy. Until recently, cancer patients with identical types and stages of cancer received similar treatment, based on the patients’ genetic makeup. However, it has been reported that individuals with the same disease respond differently to the same therapy. This information offers insights into novel therapeutic strategies that impact the management of cancer patients. This chapter provides an overview of the role of oxidative stress in cancer pathophysiology, along with the therapies targeting its related markers.

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