Chemosphere | VOL. 304

Newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae sp. HN01 and Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. HN02 collaborate with self-secreted biosurfactant to improve solubility and bioavailability for the biodegradation of hydrophobic and toxic gaseous para-xylene

Publication Date Oct 1, 2022


The gas-liquid mass transfer rate of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the limiting step in a biological treatment system. The present study aimed to utilize self-producing biosurfactants to enhance the bioavailability of hydrophobic gaseous VOCs. Two novel gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae strain HN01 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HN02 were successfully isolated from sewage sludge by using blood agar and methylene blue agar plates. The two strains can use para-xylene (PX), a hydrophobic VOC model, as the only carbon source for biosurfactant production. Both strains can produce glycolipid biosurfactants, as confirmed by the emulsification index, Nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicated that PX can be completely decomposed at an initial concentration of 15.5 mg L-1, pH value of 7.0, and temperature of 30 °C within 36 h. The Yano model is suitable for the prediction of the growth kinetics of strains over the entire PX concentration range. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that PX was converted into four and four intermediates in the presence of the HN01 and HN02 strains, respectively, and the possible mechanisms were proposed. The results can be used in purifying industrial hydrophobic gaseous VOCs and improving the bioavailability of VOCs with self-produced biosurfactants.


Hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds Produce Glycolipid Biosurfactants Gram-negative Rod-shaped Bacteria Para-xylene Biological Treatment System Emulsification Index Enterobacter Cloacae Sewage Sludge Blood Agar

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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...

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