Muslim populations in Western countries are growing, and they face biopsychosocial, spiritual, and economic challenges. Although Islam gives utmost attention to mental health stability, Muslims tend to underutilize mental health services. Mental health professionals, whether they be researchers, practitioners, or trainers working in schools, colleges/universities, mental health agencies, and research institutions, are well positioned to serve Muslims. Mental health professionals can address Muslims’ biopsychosocial and spiritual issues and enhance their quality of life. In the current study, as the authors, we (a) reviewed 300 peer-reviewed manuscripts on Muslim mental health to understand how researchers have used concept maps or theoretical frameworks to design their empirical research, (b) prepared a comprehensive concept map based on the literature review to determine the central concepts affecting Muslims’ approach to the use of mental health services, and (c) proposed a contextual theoretical (conceptual) framework. We titled the framework as Muslims’ approach to use of mental health services based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TPB/TRA) in the context of a Social Ecological Model (SEM). We drew the framework based on TPB/TRA, SEM, and the review of Muslim mental health literature (the concept map). The concept map and the framework provide the most important constructs about challenges Muslim’s face when attempting to utilize mental health services. Future researchers can use the concept map and the framework to conduct theoretically and evidence-based grounded empirical research. We provided implications for researchers, practitioners, educators, and social advocates wishing to contribute to service provision to this population.

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