This report presents the proceedings from a workshop titled "Microbiome, Metabolism and Immunoregulation of Asthma" that was held virtually May 13 and 14, 2021. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (Assembly on Allergy, Immunology, and Inflammation) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. It convened an interdisciplinary group of experts with backgrounds in asthma immunology, microbiome science, metabolomics, computational biology, and translational pulmonary research. The main purpose was to identify key scientific gaps and needs to further advance research on microbial and metabolic mechanisms that may contribute to variable immune responses and disease heterogeneity in asthma. Discussions were structured around several topics, including 1) immune and microbial mechanisms of asthma pathogenesis in murine models, 2) the role of microbes in pediatric asthma exacerbations, 3) dysregulated metabolic pathways in asthma associated with obesity, 4) metabolism effects on macrophage function in adipose tissue and the lungs, 5) computational approaches to dissect microbiome-metabolite links, and 6) potential confounders of microbiome-disease associations in human studies. This report summarizes the major points of discussion, which included identification of specific knowledge gaps, challenges, and suggested directions for future research. These include questions surrounding mechanisms by which microbiota and metabolites shape host health versus an allergic or asthmatic state; direct and indirect influences of other biological factors, exposures, and comorbidities on these interactions; and ongoing technical and analytical gaps for clinical translation.

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