In recent years, because of the growing desire to improve the noninvasiveness and safety of tumor treatments, sonodynamic therapy has gradually become a popular research topic. However, due to the complexity of the therapeutic process, the relevant mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. One of the widely accepted possibilities involves the effect of reactive oxygen species. In this review, the mechanism of reactive oxygen species production by sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and ways to enhance the sonodynamic production of reactive oxygen species are reviewed. Then, the clinical application and limitations of SDT are discussed. In conclusion, current research on sonodynamic therapy should focus on the development of sonosensitizers that efficiently produce active oxygen, exhibit biological safety, and promote the clinical transformation of sonodynamic therapy.

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