## Abstract

We analyze the quantum phases, correlation functions and edge modes for a class of spin-1/2 and fermionic models related to the 1D Ising chain in the presence of a transverse field. These models are the Ising chain with anti-ferromagnetic long-range interactions that decay with distance $r$ as $1/r^\alpha$, as well as a related class of fermionic Hamiltonians that generalise the Kitaev chain, where both the hopping and pairing terms are long-range and their relative strength can be varied. For these models, we provide the phase diagram for all exponents $\alpha$, based on an analysis of the entanglement entropy, the decay of correlation functions, and the edge modes in the case of open chains. We demonstrate that violations of the area law can occur for $\alpha \lesssim1$, while connected correlation functions can decay with a hybrid exponential and power-law behaviour, with a power that is $\alpha$-dependent. Interestingly, for the fermionic models we provide an exact analytical derivation for the decay of the correlation functions at every $\alpha$. Along the critical lines, for all models breaking of conformal symmetry is argued at low enough $\alpha$. For the fermionic models we show that the edge modes, massless for $\alpha \gtrsim 1$, can acquire a mass for $\alpha < 1$. The mass of these modes can be tuned by varying the relative strength of the kinetic and pairing terms in the Hamiltonian. Interestingly, for the Ising chain a similar edge localization appears for the first and second excited states on the paramagnetic side of the phase diagram, where edge modes are not expected. We argue that, at least for the fermionic chains, these massive states correspond to the appearance of new phases, notably approached via quantum phase transitions without mass gap closure. Finally, we discuss the possibility to detect some of these effects in experiments with cold trapped ions.

## Full Text

### Topics from this Paper

- Decay Of Correlation Functions
- Edge Modes
- Ising Chain
- Connected Correlation Functions
- Fermionic Models + Show 5 more

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