Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent cancers and the main cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Ectopic HCC, an extremely rare type of HCC, exhibits a wide range of clinical signs and radiographic features, making preoperative identification challenging. A 47-year-old man underwent routine abdominal color ultrasonography, which identified an asymptomatic tumor in the left upper abdomen. The patient had no history of hepatitis, did not drink alcohol, and had no family history of cancer. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneously enhanced lesion between the spleen and stomach that had invaded the diaphragm, with blood supplied by the left inferior phrenic artery. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, and HCC was identified by postoperative pathology. Additionally, specific immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the molecular biological characteristics of the HCC. The patient underwent two rounds of hepatic arterial interventional chemotherapy after surgery. Abdominal plain and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and lung CT 3 mo postoperatively revealed no signs of local recurrence or distant metastasis. This asymptomatic ectopic HCC case described achieved an excellent result due to early detection, radical resection, and systematic surveillance.

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