ACM Transactions on Storage | VOL. 18
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Kangaroo: Theory and Practice of Caching Billions of Tiny Objects on Flash

Publication Date Aug 31, 2022

Abstract

Many social-media and IoT services have very large working sets consisting of billions of tiny (≈100 B) objects. Large, flash-based caches are important to serving these working sets at acceptable monetary cost. However, caching tiny objects on flash is challenging for two reasons: (i)  SSDs can read/write data only in multi-KB “pages” that are much larger than a single object, stressing the limited number of times flash can be written; and (ii)  very few bits per cached object can be kept in DRAM without losing flash’s cost advantage. Unfortunately, existing flash-cache designs fall short of addressing these challenges: write-optimized designs require too much DRAM, and DRAM-optimized designs require too many flash writes. We present Kangaroo , a new flash-cache design that optimizes both DRAM usage and flash writes to maximize cache performance while minimizing cost. Kangaroo combines a large, set-associative cache with a small, log-structured cache. The set-associative cache requires minimal DRAM, while the log-structured cache minimizes Kangaroo’s flash writes. Experiments using traces from Meta and Twitter show that Kangaroo achieves DRAM usage close to the best prior DRAM-optimized design, flash writes close to the best prior write-optimized design, and miss ratios better than both. Kangaroo’s design is Pareto-optimal across a range of allowed write rates, DRAM sizes, and flash sizes, reducing misses b...

Concepts

Tiny Objects Flash Cache Flash Sizes Set-associative Cache IoT Services Number Of Flash Single Object Working Sets Cost Advantage Acceptable Cost

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