Background The fish Totoaba macdonaldi is endemic to the Upper Gulf of California. Its migratory movements involve sites with high levels of trace elements in the environment that can accumulate in tissues. In this study, lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations in male and female totoaba liver and muscle were quantified at various sexual maturity stages along the species' geographic distribution. Methods Generalized linear models were used to explore associations between trace element concentrations and season of the year, sex/maturity stage, and total fish length. Results No detectable Pb concentrations were recorded in liver or muscle; Cu, Cd, Zn and Fe contents in totoaba liver and muscle were typical of fish inhabiting areas with no contamination issues and are within international maximum permissible levels for human consumption. Variations in the content of Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe in liver of totoaba seem to be more related to the feeding and reproductive physiology of this species than as result of environmental exposure. Results suggest that consumption of totoaba muscle does not pose a public health risk. Furthermore, depending on the sex/maturity stage of totoaba, this fish's muscle may provide approximately 70% Cu, 60% Zn and 100% Fe of the recommended dietary reference intake.

Full Text

Published Version
Open DOI Link

Get access to 115M+ research papers

Discover from 40M+ Open access, 2M+ Pre-prints, 9.5M Topics and 32K+ Journals.

Sign Up Now! It's FREE

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call