Abstract Background This is a “proof-of-concept” study aiming to evaluate the impact of a multistep bundles intervention in the management and outcomes of patients with gram-negative bloodstream infections (GN-BSIs). Methods This was a single-center, quasi-experimental design study. In the pre-phase (January 2019 to May 2020), patients were retrospectively enrolled. During the post-phase (June 2020 to September 2021), all patients were prospectively enrolled in a nonmandatory 3-step bundles intervention arm including (i) step 1: imaging to detect deep foci of infection, follow-up blood cultures and procalcitonin monitoring; (ii) step 2: early targeted antibiotic treatment and surgical source control; (iii) step 3: discontinuation of antibiotics within 7–10 days in case of uncomplicated BSI. Patients were followed up to 28 days from BSI onset. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Results A total of 271 patients were enrolled: 127 and 144 in the pre- vs post-phase, respectively. Full application of step 1 (67% vs 42%; P < .001), step 2 (83% vs 72%; P = .031), and step 3 (54% vs 2%; P < .001) increased in the post-phase. Overall, the intervention reduced 28-day mortality (22% vs 35%, respectively; P = .016) and the median duration of total (11 vs 15 days; P < .001) and targeted (8 vs 12 days; P = .001) antibiotic ther...
Gram-negative Bloodstream Infections Follow-up Blood Cultures Surgical Source Control Risk Of 28-day Mortality Procalcitonin Monitoring Discontinuation Of Antibiotics BSI Onset 28-day Mortality Quasi-experimental Design Study Outcomes Of Patients
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