Molecular therapy oncolytics | VOL. 25
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Immunotherapy by mesenchymal stromal cell delivery of oncolytic viruses for treating metastatic tumors.

Publication Date Jun 16, 2022

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a very promising anti-cancer therapeutic strategy in the past decades. However, despite their pre-clinical promise, many OV clinical evaluations for cancer therapy have highlighted the continued need for their improved delivery and targeting. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as excellent candidate vehicles for the delivery of OVs due to their tumor-homing properties and low immunogenicity. MSCs can enhance OV delivery by protecting viruses from rapid clearance following administration and also by more efficiently targeting tumor sites, consequently augmenting the therapeutic potential of OVs. MSCs can function as "biological factories," enabling OV amplification within these cells to promote tumor lysis following MSC-OV arrival at the tumor site. MSC-OVs can promote enhanced safety profiles and therapeutic effects relative to OVs alone. In this review we explore the general characteristics of MSCs as delivery tools for cancer therapeutic agents. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of OVs as immune therapeutics and highlight some of the promising applications stemming from combining MSCs to achieve enhanced delivery and anti-tumor effectiveness of OVs at different pre-clinical and clinical stages. We further provide potential pitfalls of the MSC-OV platform and the strategies under development for enhancing the efficacy of these emerging therapeutics.

Concepts
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Oncolytic Viruses
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Potential Of Oncolytic Viruses
Delivery Of Oncolytic Viruses
Tumor-homing Properties
Biological Factories
Low Immunogenicity
Rapid Clearance
Tumor Site
Clinical Stages

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