Abstract

The gender factors that trigger economic growth in both high- and low-income countries were investigated in this study. To address these gender factors, four characteristic dimensions of gender inclusion were considered: education, access to the labor market, fertility, and democracy. The relationship between economic growth and gender factors was analyzed in a sample of 127 countries. Value and robustness were added to the results using dynamic models applied to panel data while accounting for endogeneity. We conclude that high fertility in women has negative effects on economic growth. However, when women have greater access to secondary education and the labor market in conditions of equality, the effects are positive. Similarly, the access of women to active political participation has significant effects on economic growth. Overall, this study helps identify which gender factors may promote inclusive economic growth, which is economic growth achieved when both men and women are incorporated in equal conditions.

Highlights

  • The study of gender equality and its impact on social, political, and economic aspects is a constant theme in the literature, due to the efforts in the social and political arenas to incorporate women in the different decision-making areas under conditions of equality with men

  • Considering the assessment that “gender equality brings about economic growth but economic growth does not necessarily bring about gender equality” [1], we focused on the gender factors that trigger an increase in and stimulate economic growth in a country, for both low and high income countries, and result in inclusive economic growth

  • In support of Hypothesis 1 (H1), the results show that female education (EDUCATION) significantly increased the country’s economic growth (β = 0.021; p = 0.044)

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Summary

Introduction

The study of gender equality and its impact on social, political, and economic aspects is a constant theme in the literature, due to the efforts in the social and political arenas to incorporate women in the different decision-making areas under conditions of equality with men. Our analysis was conducted on the impact of gender factors on the economic growth in different nations. The study of economic growth and its factors have been a constant in economic history. Different models have tried to clarify the factors that explain economic growth. A previous study [2] supported exogenous factors and attributed economic growth to the accumulation of capital, which was only achieved through saving. The models have been improved [3] by including endogenous factors and highlighting the role of human capital and technology as key indicators of growth

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