The paper contributes on understanding gender considerations into Sustainable Land Management (SLM) project activities on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region. Specifically, it documents gender profile and assesses the project activities along with gender considerations, where critical issues, risks and opportunities in relation to gender mainstreaming in SLM project activities are highlighted. It evaluates also the capacity for mainstreaming gender issues into the institutions involved in project implementation. The study employed structured interview and consultative meetings methods with key actors identified. A total of 500 respondents were interviewed in the project catchment areas in the region. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper winds up by consolidating key strategic areas for intervention as future outlook and lessons which manifests benchmarks for the Kilimanjaro region to adopt a more programmatic approach to sustainable land management and elsewhere of the same in other cities with the same context in Sub-Saharan Africa.


  • The Project on Reducing Land Degradation in the Highlands of Kilimanjaro, interchangeably known as Sustainable Land Management (SLM) is being implemented by the Government of Tanzania, with financial supportHow to cite this paper: Magigi, W. and Sathiel, A. (2014) Gender Consideration in Sustainable Land Management Project Activities on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: Lessons and Future Outlook

  • The consultant prepared an inception report, which before final submission and presentation was reviewed by Project Coordination Unit (PCU) and later it was presented at workshop, which was attended by different stakeholders

  • Use of a questionnaire was preferred to other methods because it was considered to be more appropriate than other techniques, for example the Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) [12] because it can be administered randomly, thereby taking into account stratification within a community, be it by wealth, social status, gender or ethnic group

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The Project on Reducing Land Degradation in the Highlands of Kilimanjaro, interchangeably known as Sustainable Land Management (SLM) is being implemented by the Government of Tanzania, with financial support. To ensure that the project is gender sensitive, gender mainstreaming is one of the interventions It ensures project implementation effectiveness, impacts, sustainability and gender relations and their influence on natural resource management and livelihoods productivity. Gender in this context refers to socially constructed roles, rights, responsibilities and relations existing between men and women [1] [2]. Despite progress on various initiatives to mainstream women and men in development projects, equality, ownership and use of resources have been minimal in developing countries [2]-[6] This has resulted into decreasing local economic development, food security, ecological integrity and sustainable livelihoods. Considering that the human activities are done by both men and women, this further justification for gender be mainstreamed into the project

Description of the Study Area
The Study Approach and Tools
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Study Limitation and Delimitation
Findings and Discussions
Gender Profile for the Project Catchment Areas
Project Activities and Role of Women and Men in SLM Activities
Technical staff with PhD and Gender issues trained in inclusion
SLM-Related Policies and Extent to Which They Consider Gender
Opportunities for Mainstreaming Gender Sensitivity
Risks in Mainstreaming Gender
The Strategy for Mainstreaming Gender into SLM Activities
Gender Mainstreaming Issues in SLM Activities
Modalities of Gender Mainstreaming Strategy Implementation
Monitoring and Evaluation
The Future Outlook

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