Muslims living in France have been facing multiple shifts and evolutions since the end of the 1970s. This chapter will discuss various facets of these developments, including what can be described as the rise of French Muslim citizens, the upward social mobility based on access to higher education, the weakening of their previous social identity as “blue collar workers”, the essentialisation of their identity as “Muslim” and finally their stigmatization in a context of growing Islamophobia.

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