We combine high-resolution spectroscopic data from APOGEE-2 Survey Data Release 16 (DR16) with broad-band photometric data from several sources, as well as parallaxes from {\it Gaia} Data Release 2 (DR2). Using the Bayesian isochrone-fitting code {\tt StarHorse}, we derive distances, extinctions and astrophysical parameters for around 388,815 APOGEE stars, achieving typical distance uncertainties of $\sim 6\%$ for APOGEE giants, $\sim 2\%$ for APOGEE dwarfs, as well as extinction uncertainties of $\sim 0.07$ mag when all photometric information is available, and $\sim 0.17$ mag if optical photometry is missing. {\tt StarHorse} uncertainties vary with the input spectroscopic catalogue, with the available photometry, and with the parallax uncertainties. To illustrate the impact of our results, we show that, thanks to {\it Gaia} DR2 and the now larger sky coverage of APOGEE-2 (including APOGEE-South), we obtain an extended map of the Galactic plane, providing unprecedented coverage of the disk close to the Galactic mid-plane ($|Z_{Gal}|<1$ kpc) from the Galactic Centre out to $R_{\rm Gal}\sim 20$ kpc. The improvements in statistics as well as distance and extinction uncertainties unveil the presence of the bar in stellar density, as well as the striking chemical duality in the innermost regions of the disk, now clearly extending to the inner bulge. We complement this paper with distances and extinctions for stars in other public released spectroscopic surveys: 324,999 in GALAH DR2, 4,928,715 in LAMOST DR5, 408,894 in RAVE DR6, and 6,095 in GES DR3

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