Many developing countries are struggling to increase access to higher education (HE) since their age participation rates (APRs) are well below the level that the countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consider necessary for sustained national development. New providers are proliferating and more HE now occurs across national borders. Today programs and institutions cross borders as well as students and the range of cross-border higher education (CBHE) include branch campuses of reputable institutions, foreign open universities, for-profit providers, IT companies delivering certificate programs, and corporate universities. CBHE entered the political arena when the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) declared HE tradable in 1995. The debate triggered by this declaration continues today. This chapter examines the politics and projects of CBHE by examining global trends and then looking at the challenges posed by private providers, open & distance learning (ODL) and eLearning, quality assurance, and degree mills.

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