The macaque material from the Early Pleistocene site of Quibas (Albanilla, Murcia, Spain), including dentognathic remains, isolated teeth and some postcranial bone fragments, is described. Both metrically and morphologically, this sample must be attributed to Macaca sylvanus (the Barbary macaque). This species is currently distributed through North Africa and Gibraltar, but was much more widely distributed during the Plio-Pleistocene, being represented by several European fossil subspecies. Metrical comparisons of dental size and proportions between extant M. s. sylvanus and fossil Macaca sylvanus florentina from the type locality and other Italian sites are undertaken, in order to classify the remains from Quibas at the subspecies level. The results show that the Quibas sample not only fits the range of variation of M. s. florentina from the type locality, but also differs from the extant Barbary macaque condition in several regards. This permits us to formally attribute the material from Quibas to M. s. florentina. The material described in this paper therefore significantly improves the knowledge of this fossil taxon, particularly regarding the upper dentition, and further confirms the taxonomic distinctiveness of this extinct taxon at the subspecies rank. Taken as a whole, M. s. florentina largely overlaps in dental dimensions with M. s. sylvanus, but differs from the latter by displaying (on average): (1) absolutely longer upper molars (especially M(1) and M(3)); (2) relatively wider upper molars (especially M(1) and M(2)); (3) longer M(3) as compared with the M(2); (4) absolutely longer M(1) and M(3); and (5) relatively narrower M(3).

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