: The earliest fossil platyrrhines, or New World Monkeys, come from the Oligocene of Bolivia. There is an abundant record of fossil platyrrhines from the early and middle Miocene of southernmost Argentina (Patagonia) whose relationships to extant families are debated. From the late Miocene of Colombia there is a diverse fauna of fossil monkeys that documents the presence of many extant groups, including pitheciines, cebines, alouattines, Aotus, and probably callitrichines. There are two large fossil platyrrhines related to alouattines and atelines from Pleistocene cave deposits in Brazil. The islands of the Caribbean were home to several species of fossil platyrrhines whose affinities to extant genera is much debated. While most of the Caribbean fossils are from relatively Recent time periods. However, they are quite different from extant genera found in Central or South America, and it is likely that they are a relic fauna from much earlier in the Cenozoic. Like extant platyrrhines, fossil platyrrhines are predominantly frugivorous, and seem to include leaper, arboreal quadrupeds, and suspensory species. However, there are indications of terrestrial habits for some of the extinct species. The origin of the platyrrhine radiation is the subject of some debate, but it seems most likely that the earliest platyrrhines rafted across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa sometime in the Eocene.

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