This is a review paper based on national and international literature, national inventories and empirical approach. A general overview of the forests, forest management and forest biodiversity of Greece are briefly summarized. The distribution of the main forest species and their ecosystems in the Geographic regions of Greece is presented in a tabular form. Their multiple functions and uses, their management type/regime, their risks and threats, protection and conservation measures are also synoptically described. Furthermore, adaptive forest management and silviculture as well as management of genetic diversity in order to face climate change are also analysed. Research priority areas on biodiversity and challenges for biodiversity research and related policy in Greece have been summarized. The new Rural Development Program (2014-2020), which is currently in the final phase of implementation, will take into consideration the forest itself and forest-related European and National legal obligations. Finally, major conclusions and research priority areas on future management and conservation of forests are highlighted.


  • Greece, in general, is a mountainous country with diverse geomorphology

  • The distribution of the main forest species and their ecosystems in the Geographic regions of Greece is presented in a tabular form

  • Biodiversity is the whole set of genes, species, and ecosystems in an area and refers to: 1) gene differences between populations or individuals of the same species; 2) species diversity refers to the variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms in a system; and 3) the diversity of ecosystems refers to the diversity of different ecosystems [9] [10]

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Mountains, valleys, lowlands, lakes, rivers, etc.) (Figure 1). Based on national and international information as well as on our long research experience on forestry and natural environment, we hope this overview work will provide useful information for the forests of Greece, forest biodiversity, forest management of the main forest species, protection and conservation of forest genetic resources in the face of climate change. The rest are municipal (9.0%), Church owned/other non-profit Foundations (10.4%) and private (6.5%) [3]

Coverage and Distribution of the Main Forest Tree Species in Greece
Stocks of Organic Carbon in Forest Soils in Greece
Forest Biodiversity
Conservation of Forests Genetic Resources—Genetic and Epigenetic Variation
Effects of Climate Change on Forest Biodiversity
Adaptive Forest Management and Silviculture—Conservation Measures
10. Conclusions and Future

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