FoodbornepathogenicE. coli continue toemerge andevolve as significant human pathogens. With cattle and other ruminants acting as natural reservoirs, they contaminate food directly via contamination of animals at slaughter or indirectly via the use of contaminated manure or water during food production. E. coli O157 remains the predominant disease causing serotype althoughadditional serotypes such as O26 and O111, along with E. coli possessing novel combinations of virulence genes, highlight the increasing complexity associated with reducing the prevalence of foodborne pathogenic E. coli. Variability in the severity of disease caused by different E. coli provides insight into the significance of virulence factors thereby enabling the design ofpossiblecontrolmethodssuchasvaccines.Thecontinuing burden of foodborne pathogenic E. coli presents a challenge for foodproducersandresearchers toovercometoensurean ongoing supply of safe and healthy food.

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