This chapter focuses on flat membrane modules. In the plate-and-frame system, the flat membranes, their supports, and feedwater are stacked and clamped between two end plates. The module can easily be adapted to different separation problems, for example, in the food and pharmaceutical industries, although several devices are described for the desalination of sea water. The module has the advantage that it does not require an elaborate feedwater pretreatment. The concentration polarization can be reduced by using specially designed feed guiding plates. The flat membrane configuration is dominated by western, mainly European, industry, not a single document of Japanese origin being filed in western countries.
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Climate change Research Articles published between Aug 08, 2022 to Aug 14, 2022
Aug 15, 2022
Articles Included: 5
Introduction: There is no consensus on the policies that should be seen as implicitly pricing carbon (see World Bank (2019a) for a discussion). The OE...Read More
Gender Equality Research Articles published between Aug 08, 2022 to Aug 14, 2022
Aug 15, 2022
Articles Included: 4
I would like to thank Anna Khakee, Federica Zardo and Ragnar Weilandt for their very useful comments as well as the participants of the workshop of 21...Read More
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