The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is the round capillary-free zone within the macula and is supplied only by a single-layered parafoveal capillary arcade. This study aimed to evaluate the quantitative FAZand retino-choroidal vessel density (VD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a healthy Indian population. This was a cross-sectional observational study that was conducted for evaluating the quantitative FAZ and retino-choroidal VD of 200 eyes of 100 healthy Indian subjects, including 62 males and 38 females (age range 17-50 years) having the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of logMAR 0 (20/20; 6/6) and spherical equivalent refractive error of not more than 1 D. The subjects were examined using OCTA automated software on spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT; Nidek RS 3000 Advance 2; Nidek, Inc., Fremont, CA) on a 3 x 3 mm OCTA macular scan centred on the fovea. The FAZ size, perimeter and circularity index, VD in superficial, deep, and outer retina (OR), outer retinal chorio-capillaries (ORCC), chorio-capillaries (CC) and choroid (C) were analysed in the circular and quadrant-segmented zones. A correlation was found between the FAZ size, perimeter and circularity, andVD in retino-choroidal layers, and between BCVA, age, central foveal thickness (CFT) and sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and OCTA parameters. The FAZ and surrounding vascular arcades were intact in all eyes, showing either a vertical or horizontal oval-shaped symmetrical formation without gaps, holes or interruption of the capillary network. The mean value of CFTwas 237.5±26.0 microns and SFCTwas 269.6±53.0 microns. The mean FAZ area was 0.42±0.23 mm2, FAZ perimeter was 3.3±1.0 mm and FAZ circularity index was 0.46±0.1. The mean VD in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) was 23.87±10.66, in deep capillary plexus (DCP) was 16.03±9.90, in ORwas 13.22±12.27, in ORCCwas 39.74±14.32, in CCwas 37.02±16.43 and in choroid was 37.43±16.76. The increasing order of VD in different retino-choroidal layers was OR<DCP<SCP<CC<C<ORCC. The FAZ area and perimeter had a statistically significant (SS) negative correlation with the VD in SCP, DCP and OR, while the FAZ perimeter additionally had a SS negative correlation with the VD in the choroid. The FAZ circularity had a SS positive correlation with VD in SCP, DCP and OR. There was no SS correlation between the age of subjects and OCTA parameters. The BCVA hada SS correlation with only one parameter, i.e. ORCC foveal (r=-0.15; p=0.03). There was a SS negative correlation between CFT and FAZ area and perimeter, and a SS positive correlation between the CFT and VD in SCP, DCP and OR. There was a SS positive correlation between the SFCT and VD in different layers including SCP, DCP, ORCC, CC and choroid. VD is the highest in the ORCC and lowest in the OR segment. A better VD in SCP, DCP and OR is associated with a reduced FAZ area/FAZ perimeter and an increased FAZ circularity index. A lower VD in the ORCC is associated with worse BCVA. In a healthy subject, a relatively thicker foveal region is likely to have better vascularity of SCP, DCP and ORand a smaller FAZ area/FAZ perimeter. In the absence of diseases, relatively thicker sub-foveal choroid is expected to have better vascularity of SCP, DCP, ORCC, CC and choroid.

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