Caicara Ethnoecology: artisanal fishermen's knowledge. Through artisanal fishing, the fishermen explore the aquatic environment in a specific manner, maintaining a great diversity of direct interactions with the environment. Guided by this ethnoecological focus, this work had the objective of developing an ethnoichthyological study to obtain information about the diversity of marine ichthyofauna through the artisanal fishermen's knowledge, considering the morphological, ecological and behavioral aspects of fish such as habitat, reproduction and behavior, noting also the similarities between Caicara ethnoknowledge and the scientific literature. This research was developed in the Caicara communities of Barra do Ribeira and Jaire (Iguape), Carijo and Porto Cubatao (Cananeia), and Pedrinhas (Ilha Comprida). A high level of correspondence between the ethnoknowledge and the scientific knowledge was observed, providing therefore one more contribution to the discussion between biodiversity and cultural diversity, and also making a potential contribution to ethnoknowledge for the preservation of biodiversity.

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