Abstract The Rhopalosomatidae is a clade of parasitoid aculeates which consists of four extant genera and two extinct species. Its phylogenetic position has been debated, but now appears stable as sister to the Vespidae, a clade which contains eusocial wasps. Here, we describe a new species of Rhopalosomatidae from mid-Cretaceous burmite, †Eorhopalosoma lohrmanni. Contrary to the only other rhopalosomatid described from burmite, †E. gorgyra, †E. lohrmanni has paired setae at the apices of various antennomeres, a synapomorphic condition of the Rhopalosomatidae. The new species contributes to the growing knowledge of Cenomanian biodiversity provided by Kachin burmite fossils from Myanmar. Future studies combining fossil and genomic data may reveal important morphological transformation series, which will be useful for revising the definition of the Vespoidea.

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