Environmental security and sustainability are complementary approaches to comprehending and resolving environmental problems. In contrast to sustainability, however, environmental security has performed poorly in terms of policy formulation. This is a function of its short history, its interdisciplinary nature, and its ambiguity. It is also a function of disagreements about which environmental problems can rightfully be called 'security' issues. As a way forward, this paper proposes a framework for identifying environmental problems that might reasonably be considered as security issues. Applying this framework, biodiversity loss, climate change, and nuclear power all qualify as environmental security issues. The framework is explained through an application to the issue of nuclear power. Sustainability policy provides many answers to these macro-problems, so the paper then explores the linkages between environmental security and sustainability. It argues that environmental security does not necessarily demand new policies, but rather in the first instance requires a renewed effort at implementing existing sustainability policies. To this end, environmental security requires new forms of governance.

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