This chapter gives an overview of a well-established life-cycle assessment methodology adopted by analysts in 14 countries which have been collaborating under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Based on actual photovoltaic (PV) life-cycle materials and energy inventory data, estimates of energy payback times (EPBT), energy return on energy investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were made; those are indicative of PV performance in early 2010; using more up-to-date PV efficiencies will result in lower EPBT and GHG emissions and higher EROI estimates.

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