Global environmental problems, such as deforestation and climate change caused by nonsustainable extraction of wood from forests and fossil-fuel combustion, have led to the realization of the need to explore efficient and alternative environmentally sound energy options. Forest biomass such as wood, logging residues, trees, shrubs, sawdust, and bark would be extensively used for industrial and electrical applications. The current extraction and consumption pattern of biomass has led to forest degradation and deforestation, loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, and atmospheric pollution from emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during the combustion of wood.

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