Removal of pollutants in a sustainable manner can be made possible through bioremediation. The process can be done be brought about by biological organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. The bioremediation process is also important in making free or remediate the waste water and solid wastes rich in organic matter pollutant. Needless to mention, the microorganisms in their metabolic processes release certain enzymes, biosurfactants, and microbial products that convert these hazardous pollutants to less toxic ones. The bioremediation process as such also generates solid residue that finds application as organic manure. However, there are certain limiting factors that need to explore for the effective, sustainable bioremediation process. In the light of these, the present chapter discusses methodology as well as limiting factors of effective, economic, and ecofriendly bioremediation process.

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