Abstract Researching citizens' sense of personal responsibility to engage in groundwater resource management, their perception of risks associated with potential threats to groundwater, their degrees of dependence on groundwater resources, and their socioeconomic characteristics, this study aimed to investigate how these variables predict citizens' engagement in groundwater resource management. Participation was divided into three categories: participation in obtaining groundwater information, in developing groundwater policies and strategies, and in implementing those policies. Thailand’s Rayong Groundwater Basin—which currently faces various threats, such as seawater intrusion, erratic rainfall, and intensive use of groundwater for industrialization—was chosen as a case study. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with the participants who were selected based on a purposive method focusing on groundwater users in five sectors: the business and industrial, agricultural, household, environmental, and public organization sectors. The results of multiple regression analyses revealed that the sense of personal responsibility alone could not highly motivate groundwater users to engage in groundwater policy development and implementation. Perceived risks associated with potential threats to groundwater resources significantly influenced participation in developing and implementing groundwater policies. Users' degree of groundwater dependence also influenced their participation in obtaining information relevant to groundwater and in implementing policies. Males were determined to be more engaged in managing groundwater resources, particularly in obtaining information and implementing policies. This study suggests that a sense of personal responsibility and risk perceptions should be promoted together to enhance people’s motivation and enthusiasm for cooperating with organizations responsible for sustainable groundwater management (GM).

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