Electric-drive transportation offers a wonderful new opportunity [1, 2] to address air-pollution issues and petroleum consumption problems around the world. Currently, the greenhouse gas emissions from conventional transportation account for 40% of air-pollution emissions from all energy-using sectors [3, 4]. Development of new electric-drive techniques, in the transportation sector, is both a new and ongoing endeavor. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been quickly adopted and widely deployed over the past decade. Presently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use the electricity from the electric power grid along with petroleum to power the vehicle, have received considerable recent attention to significantly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

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