The most important factor to influence our decision on future energy systems is the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The demand to reduce GHG emissions could totally change the energy systems of the world. A global 2°C target by the year 2100 was confirmed in international negotiation processes in recent years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change called research teams to model and analyse the possible pathways, policies, options and cost benefits related to GHG mitigation. China’s CO2 emission from energy and cement process already accounts for nearly 24 % of global emission in 2010, and the trend is expected to increase. The role of China in global GHG mitigation is crucial. This chapter analyses the scenario for China’s energy options against a background of the global 2°C target, and discusses the feasibility for lowering CO2 emissions in China. The conclusion is that it is feasible for China to limit CO2 emissions, reaching an emission peak before 2025, thus making it possible to achieve the global 2°C target. The key to achieving this goal is the development of a sustainable energy system. Recent progress in the development of key technologies and the availability for further investment into low carbon options together with the implementation of low carbon policies, make it possible for China to go down the low carbon emission path.

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