This study presents a cradle-to-gate assessment of the energy balances and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land-use change (LUC), agricultural phase, transportation, milling, biodiesel processing, and comparing the results from different farming systems, including company plantations and smallholder plantations (either out growers or independent growers) in different locations in Kalimantan and Sumatra of Indonesia. The findings demonstrate that there are considerable differences between the farming systems and the locations in net energy yields (43.6–49.2 GJ t−1 biodiesel yr−1) as well as GHG emissions (1969.6–5626.4 kg CO2eq t−1 biodiesel yr−1). The output to input ratios are positive in all cases. The largest GHG emissions result from LUC effects, followed by the transesterification, fertilizer production, agricultural production processes, milling, and transportation. Ecosystem carbon payback times range from 11 to 42 years.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Biodiesel In Indonesia Palm Oil Biodiesel Net Energy Yields Sumatra Of Indonesia Independent Growers Agricultural Production Processes Smallholder Plantations Farming Systems Land-use Change Effects
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Round-ups are the summaries of handpicked papers around trending topics published every week. These would enable you to scan through a collection of papers and decide if the paper is relevant to you before actually investing time into reading it.
Climate change Research Articles published between Nov 21, 2022 to Nov 27, 2022
Nov 28, 2022
Articles Included: 2
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...Read More
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