Abstract This paper evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems located in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flow-through with a pumped water supply, flow-through with pure oxygen, partial reuse system, partial reuse with heating, and a reuse system for the production of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts. Key parameters used in the evaluation include direct energy, indirect energy, transportation energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and pollutant discharges. Power (electricity and natural gas) and feed energy accounted for the majority of the required energy for all the rearing option evaluated. The sum of the fixed capital and chemicals components accounted for less than 2–12% of the total energy budget for any rearing option. The energy efficiency (energy output/energy input) of the six options ranges from 0.97% for flow-through with pumped supply to 3.49% for the flow-through with gravity supply. The rearing options with the three highest energy efficiencies were flow-through with gravity supply (3.49%), partial reuse (2.75%), and reuse (2.64%). On a kg of smolt produced basis, the six rearing options showed a wide range in performance. The reuse system had the lowest water (2 m 3 kg − 1 ) and land (0.13 m 2 kg − 1 ) requirements and the third lowest total energy requirement (288 MJ kg − 1 ). The partial reuse system had the second lowest total power requirement (276 MJ kg − 1 ), a low land requirement (0.21 m 2 kg −...
Water Requirements Land Requirement Lowest Energy Requirement Partial Reuse Pumped Water Supply Reuse System Flow-through System Energy Requirement Total Power Requirement Greenhouse Gas Emissions
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Round-ups are the summaries of handpicked papers around trending topics published every week. These would enable you to scan through a collection of papers and decide if the paper is relevant to you before actually investing time into reading it.
Climate change Research Articles published between Jan 23, 2023 to Jan 29, 2023
Jan 30, 2023
Articles Included: 3
Climate change adaptation has shifted from a single-dimension to an integrative approach that aligns with vulnerability and resilience concepts. Adapt...Read More
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