Journal of Cleaner Production | VOL. 171

Energy and environmental assessment of a traditional durum-wheat bread

Publication Date Jan 1, 2018


Abstract This study was designed and developed to investigate the bread sector, by addressing the environmental issues associated with the supply chain of ‘ Pagnotta del Dittaino’ , a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) durum wheat bread produced in the central-east area of Sicily. In particular, the study discusses the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to highlight the most significant and representative environmental impacts for this bread production system. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and Carbon Footprint (CF) were also estimated to address the usage of primary-energy sources and the emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs). Cultivation is the system hotspot, mostly because of the production of urea and diammonium phosphate, and of the agricultural activities. Significant contributions arise from ammonia volatilisation and nitrous oxide emission due to mineral fertilisation, affecting ‘Human health’ and ‘Climate Change’ . ‘ Resources’ were impacted by the non-renewable energy use (natural gas and crude oil) which, in turn, is due to the production and transport of fertilisers and to the agricultural activities. Additionally, the CED-analysis highlighted the important contribution made by the use of biomass energy, as a consequence of the energy sequestered by the plant during growth. CO 2 resulted to be the most relevant and representative GHG in this food system. The study contributes to the subject knowledge and literature, and can be of interest for researchers, LCA practitioners, farmers and producers, polic...


Protected Designation Of Origin Application Of Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Assessment Practitioners Durum Wheat Bread Use Of Biomass Energy Non-renewable Energy Use Cumulative Energy Demand Diammonium Phosphate Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases Ammonia Volatilisation

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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...

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