Cancer is a collective name for a variety of diseases that can begin in virtually every organ or body tissue as abnormal cells develop uncontrollably and ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed all over the world at present. Whereas HIV is a virus that makes people susceptible to infection and contributes to the condition of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Almost 37 million people are currently diagnosed with HIV and 1 million people die every year, which is the worst-case scenario. Potential medicinal compounds have played a crucial role in the production of certain clinically beneficial novel anti-cancer and anti-HIV agents that are produced from natural sources especially from plants. These include Taxol, Vinblastine, Podophyllotoxin, Betulinic acid, Camptothecin, and Vincristine, etc. In the past decades, bioactive compounds were extracted directly from the plant sources which was more time consuming, led to low yield productivity, high cost, and bad impact on biodiversity. Endophytes, the microorganisms that reside inside the host plant by not causing any kind of harm to them and have potential applications in agriculture, medicine, pollution, and food industries. Therefore, by isolating and characterizing novel endophytes from medicinal plants and extracting their secondary metabolites to produce useful bioactive compounds can be beneficial for well-being and society as a future therapeutics. This approach is not harmful to biodiversity economical, timesaving, low cost, and can lead to the discovery of various industrial and commercially important novel anti-tumor and anti-HIV agents in the future. The Himalayas are home to several medicinal plants and the endophytic microbial biodiversity of the Himalayan region is also not much explored yet. However, the effect of compounds from these endophytes on anticancer and antiviral activity, especially anti-HIV has been largely unexplored. Hence, the present review is designed to the exploration of endophytic microbial diversity that can give rise to the discovery of various novel potential industrially valuable bioactive compounds that can lessen the rate of such type of pandemic diseases in the future by providing low-cost future therapeutics in future.

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