Perfusion | VOL. 29

Endogenous gas formation of carbon dioxide used for wound flooding – an experimental study with implications regarding gas microembolism during cardiopulmonary bypass

Publication Date Nov 13, 2013


Background: Gas microembolisation is an identified risk in cardiac surgery. Flooding the wound with carbon dioxide is a method proposed to reduce this problem. The high solubility of carbon dioxide is beneficial, but may also cause problems. The gas solubility diminishes at warming and endogenous bubbles are formed when cold blood saturated with carbon dioxide is returned by cardiotomy suction. Methods: The release of endogenous gas was measured at high resolution in an experimental digital model. A medium (water or blood) was incubated and equilibrated with gas (100% carbon dioxide or air) at a low temperature (10°C or 23°C). The temperature was increased to 37°C and the gas release was measured, at rest and at fluid motion. Results: The amount of carbon dioxide released at warming was substantial for both water and blood (both p=0.005). The effect was more pronounced when the temperature differential increased (p=0.005). However, blood and water differed in these terms: with water, the release of carbon-dioxide started instantly at warming; with blood, carbon dioxide remained dissolved and was released at fluid motion. When blood was warmed from 10°C to 37°C, the gas release corresponded to 44.4% (40.6/46.5) of the medium volume (median with quartile range). Conclusion: Gas dissolved in a medium becomes released at warming, as confirmed here. Blood exposed to carbon dioxide became heavily oversaturated at warming, with the gas instantly released at fluid motion. The amount of contained gas increased with a higher temperatu...


High Solubility Of Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Fluid Motion Risk In Cardiac Surgery Cardiotomy Suction Endogenous Bubbles Cardiac Surgery Quartile Range Endogenous Gas Gas Release

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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...

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