Anesthesiology | VOL. 133
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End-tidal to Arterial Gradients and Alveolar Deadspace for Anesthetic Agents

Publication Date Sep 1, 2020

Abstract

Background According to the “three-compartment” model of ventilation-perfusion () inequality, increased scatter in the lung under general anesthesia is reflected in increased alveolar deadspace fraction (Vda/Va) customarily measured using end-tidal to arterial (a-a) partial pressure gradients for carbon dioxide. a-a gradients for anesthetic agents such as isoflurane are also significant but have been shown to be inconsistent with those for carbon dioxide under the three-compartment theory. The authors hypothesized that three-compartment Vda/Va calculated using partial pressures of four inhalational agents (Vda/Vag) is different from that calculated using carbon dioxide (Vda/Vaco2) measurements, but similar to predictions from multicompartment models of physiologically realistic “log-normal” distributions. Methods In an observational study, inspired, end-tidal, arterial, and mixed venous partial pressures of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane were measured simultaneously with carbon dioxide in 52 cardiac surgery patients at two centers. Vda/Va was calculated from three-compartment model theory and compared for all gases. Ideal alveolar (Pag) and end-capillary partial pressure (Pc’g) of each agent, theoretically identical, were also calculated from end-tidal and arterial partial pressures adjusted for deadspace and venous admixture. Results C...

Concepts
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Lower Blood Solubility
End-tidal Partial Pressures
Partial Pressures
Arterial Partial Pressures
Venous Admixture
Inhalational Agents
Three-compartment Model
Carbon Dioxide
Arterial Pressure Gradients
Alveolar Partial Pressure

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