Journal of Interpersonal Violence | VOL. 31

Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation

Publication Date Nov 6, 2014


Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [ N = 157] and the United States [ N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti–lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures.


Sexual Stigma Stigma Consciousness Hate Crime Victimization Subjective Happiness Subjective Happiness Scale Violent Incidents Sexual Prejudice Spanish Context Sexual Orientation Construct Of Consciousness

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