International Journal of Spine Surgery

Effect of Smoking on Motor Recovery After Cervical American Spinal Injury Association Grade D Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

Publication Date Nov 22, 2022


Smoking is a known neurotoxin that has been shown to negatively impact neurological function and recovery in multiple animal studies. Patients who smoke have been shown to have decreased rates of motor improvement, fusion, and overall successful outcomes after elective spinal surgery, but the effect of smoking on outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) has not been demonstrated in prior literature. This study aims to investigate how smoking effects motor recovery after TSCI. Using the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center database, patients who underwent surgical management of American Spinal Injury Association grade D cervical TSCI between 2009 and 2016 were included. Patients were grouped by smoking or nonsmoking status. Overall total motor score and change in motor scores at rehabilitation admission, rehabilitation discharge, and 1-year follow-up visits were compared between groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was completed, including any possible confounding demographic or injury variables. A total of 152 patients (121 smokers and 31 nonsmokers) completed their 1-year follow-up interview and physical examination and were included in the study. There were no differences in motor score between groups at rehabilitation admission or discharge. Smokers had worse improvement in motor score at 1 year (7.99 nonsmokers vs 4.61 smokers; P = 0.019 on multivariate analysis) and worse overall total motor score at 1 year (94.0 nonsmokers vs 90.0 smokers; P = 0.018 on multivariate analysis) after controlling...


American Spinal Injury Association Grade Rehabilitation Discharge Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Total Motor Score Cervical Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Motor Score Rehabilitation Admission Change In Motor Scores Spinal Injury Improvement In Motor Score

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