OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of joint administration of electroacupuncture (EA) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thin endometrium rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of conception rate. METHODS Forty female SD rats were divided into control, model, BMMSC and EA+BMMSC groups. The thin endometrium model was established by intrauterine infusion of 95% ethanol and saline. EA (1 mA, 2 Hz/15 Hz) was applied to "Guanyuan"(CV4), unilateral "Zigong" (EX-CA1) and unila-teral "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) for 15 min, once daily for 10 d. Rats of the BMMSC and EA+BMMSC groups received injection of BMMSC suspension through caudal vein on the day of modeling, the 3rd day after surgery, and the 2nd and the 3rd estrus phases, respectively. Changes of body weight and estrus phase were continuously recorded. After three estrus cycles, uterine specimens were taken and the uterine coefficient was calculated. The immunoactivity of KI67(an antigen for cell proliferation) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of ER and PR was detected by Western blot. RESULTS Compared with the control group, the uterine coefficient, and expression of endometrium ER and PR proteins were significantly decreased in the model group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION EA combined with BMMSC injection has a positive effect in promoting the proliferation of endometrium cells in rats with thin endometrium, which may be related to its effect in up-regulating the expression of ER and PR proteins.

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