BMC Biology | VOL. 20

Dynamics and structural changes of calmodulin upon interaction with the antagonist calmidazolium

Publication Date Aug 9, 2022


Abstract Background Calmodulin (CaM) is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic multifunctional protein that functions as the major sensor of intracellular calcium signaling. Its calcium-modulated function regulates the activity of numerous effector proteins involved in a variety of physiological processes in diverse organs, from proliferation and apoptosis, to memory and immune responses. Due to the pleiotropic roles of CaM in normal and pathological cell functions, CaM antagonists are needed for fundamental studies as well as for potential therapeutic applications. Calmidazolium (CDZ) is a potent small molecule antagonist of CaM and one the most widely used inhibitors of CaM in cell biology. Yet, CDZ, as all other CaM antagonists described thus far, also affects additional cellular targets and its lack of selectivity hinders its application for dissecting calcium/CaM signaling. A better understanding of CaM:CDZ interaction is key to design analogs with improved selectivity. Here, we report a molecular characterization of CaM:CDZ complexes using an integrative structural biology approach combining SEC-SAXS, X-ray crystallography, HDX-MS, and NMR. Results We provide evidence that binding of a single molecule of CDZ induces an open-to-closed conformational reorientation of the two domains of CaM and results in a strong stabilization of its structural elements associated with a reduction of protein dynamics over a large time range. These CDZ-triggere...


Calmidazolium CaM Antagonists Domains Of CaM Inhibitor Of Calmodulin Structural Changes Diverse Organs Enzyme Targets Selective Antagonists Close Contact Cell Biology

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