Gene | VOL. 823
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Distribution of HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, and -DQB1 polymorphisms in the Korean minority in Kazakhstan, and relatedness to neighboring and distant populations.

Publication Date May 20, 2022

Abstract

Among the 125 ethnicities and linguistic groups in Kazakhstan, Koreans represent the eighth minority numerically. HLA class I and class II allele frequencies and extended haplotypes were studied for the first time and were compared to related and distant populations worldwide. HLA class I (A, B, C) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) profile was investigated in Kazakhstani Koreans, and were compared to other populations using standard genetic distances (SGD), neighbor-joining dendrograms, correspondence, and haplotype analysis. One hundred and thirty-one HLA alleles were identified in Koreans living in Kazakhstan, with A*02:01 (23.08%), B*35:01 (8.24%), C*01:02 (15.38%), DRB1*08:03 (9.89%), and DQB1*03:01 (21.98%) being the most frequent alleles. A*03:01∼B*07:02 (3.85%), B*08:01∼DRB1*03:01 (3.85%), B*07:02∼C*07:02 (7.14%), and DRB1*08:03∼DQB1*06:01 (9.34%) were the most frequent two-locus haplotypes, while A*02:01∼B*18:01∼C*07:01∼DRB1*11:04∼DQB1*03:01 and A*33:03∼B*44:03∼C*14:03∼DRB1*13:02∼DQB1*06:04 (2.2% each) were the most frequent five-locus haplotypes. Korean minority in Kazakhstan was closely related to East Asians, including Mongolians (SGD, 0.044), Tuvans (East Siberia; SGD, 0.081), Burayts (Siberia; SGD, 0.094), but distant from East Mediterranean such as Lebanese (SGD, 0.367), Greek (SGD, 0.377), and Saudi (SGD, 0.414), and most Siberians (SGD, 0.473-0.699). This relatedness could be mainly attributed to massive migration of Koryo Saram to Kazakhstan in the 20th century.

Concepts
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Standard Genetic Distances
DQB1 Polymorphisms
Korean Minority
Distribution Of HLA-A
HLA Class
Neighbor-joining Dendrograms
Frequent Alleles
Distant Populations
Frequent Haplotypes
Standard Genetic Analysis

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