Abstract The aim of this study is to understand the feeding habits of the cave bear, Ursus spelaeus by investigating the dental microwear patterns of 106 molars from six Late Pleistocene caves in Catalonia (Spain): Ermitons Cave, Arbreda Cave, Mollet Cave, Llenes Cave, Toll Cave, and Teixoneres Cave. Dental microwear patterns of U. spelaeus were compared with a reference collection of extant ursid species. The results show an omnivorous and carnivorous diet in all sites analyzed with both intra- and inter-site pattern variability. Unlike previous studies, here dental microwear identified more carnivorous habits for the herbivorous cave bear during the days/weeks before death. More varied and higher energy items would help to cope with the hibernation period. The variability between the samples could be due to the characteristic climatic shifts of the Late Pleistocene and to the corresponding differences in the availability of resources.

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