Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | VOL. 195
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Detection of the protistan parasite, Haplosporidium costale in Crassostrea gigas oysters from the French coast: A retrospective study

Publication Date Nov 1, 2022

Abstract

The parasite Haplosporidium costale is known to infect and cause mortality in the oyster Crassostrea virginica in the USA. Decades after its first description in the 1960s, this parasite was detected in Crassostrea gigas in the USA and China. However, it presented a low prevalence and no mortality was associated with it. More recently, in 2019, H. costale was detected in France in a batch of moribund oysters. In order to observe how long this parasite has been present on French coasts, from Normandy to Thau lagoon, a retrospective investigation was conducted on 871 adult and spat oyster batches from 2004 to 2020. To allow rapid detection on a large panel of samples, a real-time PCR for the H. costale actin gene was developed. This method allowed the detection of H. costale DNA in adults from 2005 and in spat from 2008. The H. costale prevalence in spat appeared higher than in adults over the years studied, 14.59% compared to 6.50%, respectively. All samples presenting positive results were then sequenced on two targets, H. costale rRNA and actin genes. The actin gene sequencing highlighted the presence of two H. costale strains. Adult C. gigas as well as spat batches coming from hatcheries and DNA controls from C. virginica all presented with the Profile 1 H. costale strain. The Profile 2 H. costale strain was detected only in C. gigas spat coming from natural sources. These observations suggest a correlation between the origin of oysters and H. costale strains which may have been caused by commercial imports between Japan, ...

Concepts

French Coast Crassostrea Gigas Actin Gene Oyster Crassostrea Virginica Commercial Imports Rapid Detection Natural Sources Adult Oyster Detection Of Parasite Retrospective Study

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