The functional connectivity (FC) between multiple brain regions during tasks is currently gradually being explored with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). However, the FC present during grip force tracking tasks performed under visual feedback remains unclear. In the present study, we used fNIRS to measure brain activity during resting states and grip force tracking tasks at 25%, 50%, and 75% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in 11 healthy subjects, and the activity was measured from four target brain regions: the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC), right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), left sensorimotor cortex (lSMC), and right sensorimotor cortex (rSMC). We determined the FC between these regions utilizing three different methods: Pearson's correlation method, partial correlation method, and a pairwise maximum entropy model (MEM). The results showed that the FC of lSMC-rSMC and lPFC-rPFC (interhemispheric homologous pairs) were significantly stronger than those of other brain region pairs. Moreover, FC of lPFC-rPFC was strengthened during the 75% MVC task compared to the other task states and the resting states. The FC of lSMC-lPFC and rSMC-rPFC (intrahemispheric region pairs) strengthened with a higher task load. The results provided new insights into the FC between brain regions during visuo-guided grip force tracking tasks.

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