Pathologic myopia causes vision impairment and blindness, and therefore, necessitates a prompt diagnosis. However, there is no standardized definition of pathologic myopia, and its interpretation by 3D optical coherence tomography images is subjective, requiring considerable time and money. Therefore, there is a need for a diagnostic tool that can automatically and quickly diagnose pathologic myopia in patients. This study aimed to develop an algorithm that uses 3D optical coherence tomography volumetric images (C-scan) to automatically diagnose patients with pathologic myopia. The study was conducted using 367 eyes of patients who underwent optical coherence tomography tests at the Ophthalmology Department of Incheon St. Mary's Hospital and Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from January 2012 to May 2020. To automatically diagnose pathologic myopia, a deep learning model was developed using 3D optical coherence tomography images. The model was developed using transfer learning based on four pre-trained convolutional neural networks (ResNet18, ResNext50, EfficientNetB0, EfficientNetB4). Grad-CAM was used to visualize features affecting the detection of pathologic myopia. The performance of each model was evaluated and compared based on accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The model based on EfficientNetB4 showed the best performance (95% accuracy, 93% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and 98% AUROC) in identifying pathologic myopia.

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