Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), drusen, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and diabetic macular edema (DME) are significant causes of visual impairment globally. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool for these ocular conditions. However, subjective interpretation and inter-observer variability highlight the need for standardized diagnostic approaches. Methods This study aimed to develop a robust deep learning model using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for the automated detection of drusen, CNV, and DME in OCT images. A diverse dataset of 1,528 OCT images from Kaggle.com was used for model training. The performance metrics, including precision, recall, sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and overall accuracy, were assessed to evaluate the model's effectiveness. Results The developed model achieved high precision (0.99), recall (0.962), sensitivity (0.985), specificity (0.987), F1 score (0.971), and overall accuracy (0.987) in classifying diseased and healthy OCT images. These results demonstrate the efficacy and efficiency of the model in distinguishing between retinal pathologies. Conclusion The study concludes that the developed deep learning model using AI techniques is highly effective in the automated detection of drusen, CNV, and DME in OCT images. Further validation studies and research efforts are necessary to evaluate the generalizability and integration of the model into clinical practice. Collaboration between clinicians, policymakers, and researchers is essential for advancing diagnostic tools and management strategies for AMD and DR. Integrating this technology into clinical workflows can positively impact patient care, particularly in settings with limited access to ophthalmologists. Future research should focus on collecting independent datasets, addressing potential biases, and assessing real-world effectiveness. Overall, the use of machine learning algorithms in conjunction with OCT imaging holds great potential for improving the detection and management of drusen, CNV, and DME, leading to enhanced patient outcomes and vision preservation.

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