The main objective of this study was to scrutinize the effectiveness of deanship in Teachers' Training Colleges (TTCs) of Oromia Regional State and to identify factors that hamper deans’ effectiveness in these TTCs. It was delimited to TTCs located in central and southwest by category into first, second and third generations in accordance with their  date of establishement. Descriptive survey method was employed. Mixed approach research design was utilized. Data were collected from teachers using questionnaire and from deans and stream heads through interview and FDG. The collected data were analyzed using percentage, standard deviation, weighted mean and one-way ANOVA for quantitative data, and narration for interview and FGD questions. 93.5% of the respondents were males and the rest 6.5% females. Regarding deanship effectiveness, statistically significant difference exists between the TTCs at P<0.05. For the sake of confidentiality, the TTCs were randomly named as TTC1, 2, 3 and 4. Statistically, the leadership in TTC1 was relatively highly effective; TTCs 2and 4 relatively moderately effective and remain in the middle.  The TTC3 was relatively less effective with all mean values below average. Leadership in TTC1 seems more committed, participatory, transparent and democratic when compared with others. Most of the TTCs leadership was affected by turnover which in turn hinders the college deans from setting and implementing management strategies for quality training. The situation at TTC3 reported unique in such that the leadership seems less visionary, less committed, less participatory and none transparent in managing college activities. In order to fill the gap between TTCs’ leadership effectiveness, the assignment of deans of the colleges should be merit based with strong criteria of selection by focusing on visionary and committed behaviour of the applicant. College deans with knowledge and skills gaps should get the necessary training that enable them carry out their responsibilities. TTCs should be encouraged to develop the culture of experience sharing in order to learn from one another. Evaluation of deans’ effectiveness should be under taken in line with the responsibilities vest on  them and the attempts made for quality education and training.

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