Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a global disease and an improved diagnostic approach to this orthopedic condition is needed, with an emphasis on inexpensive and minimally invasive techniques. This research aimed to determine the differentiating potential of selected biochemical markers in serum between healthy dogs and dogs with hip dysplasia in a breed-specific study that involved the Tornjak dog population. 99 Tornjak dogs radiographically categorized (Federation Cynologique Internationale procedure and scoring scheme) between December 2019 and April 2021, as having no sign of hip dysplasia or near normal hip joints (nondysplastic group; n = 51) vs mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia (dysplastic group; 48). Serum concentrations and enzyme activity of the biochemical markers hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen II C-terminal propeptide (PIICP), and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) were compared among adult dogs with or without radiographic hip dysplasia. Statistical tests used to examine the differentiating potential of biochemical markers in Tornjak dog groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression, and receiving operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Tornjak dogs with radiographic CHD had significantly lower serum concentrations of HA and higher concentrations of PIICP and MMP9 activity compared to dogs with radiographically normal hips (P < .05). Selected biochemical markers could distinguish dogs with radiographic CHD from those without CHD with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that the diagnostic technique of measuring serum concentrations of HA, PIICP, and MMP9 activity has a selective ability to distinguish dogs with dysplastic from dogs with normal hips.

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